Glossary

- A -

Agatsu – Victory over oneself
Agotsukiage – Uppercut to the jaw
Agura – Sitting cross legged
Ai – Harmony, coming together, unification.  The spirit of love is the spirit of harmony.  Not selfish, limited affection for a particular person or group, but all-embracing compassionate love for all things.
Ai hamni – Mutual stance; When both partners have the same foot forward (right/right).
Aiki – All elements of the universe arise through the blending of positive and negative Ki; practitioners of Aikido attempt to harmonize their Ki with both that of their partner and that of the larger environment.
Aikido -
-Ai- Harmony, union with, oneness.
-Ki- The essential Life Force, the fundamental Creative energy.
-Do-The Way or Path.
Aiki ken – Swordsmanship according to the principles of Aikido.
Aiki Ryoho – Recharging the life force
Aiki taiso – Exercises derived from Aikido motions used as “building blocks” to Aikido techniques; Ki development techniques.
Arigato gozai mashita – Thank you very much
Ashi – Leg, foot
Atemi – A stunning blow to the opponent
Atemi waza – Striking or hitting technique

- B -

Bo (boe) – Long wooden staff
Bokken – Wooden training sword
Bokken-dori – Sword taking. Techniques used to disarm a partner armed with a sword.
Bu – In Aikido, Bu signifies valor and indomitable spirit, not contention and strife. Aikido is the ultimate expression of Bu, which originally meant to keep two weapons from coming together.
Budo -
-Bu- Military, martial
-Do- The Way or Path
Budoka – Martial way practitioner.
Bujutsu – Martial arts
Bukuto – Wooden sword
Bushi – Japanese warrior
Bushido – The ways which fighting nobles, knights, samurai should observe in their life as well as in their vocation; "the precepts of knighthood." A code of moral principles that the samurai were required or instructed to observe.

- C -

Choyaku – The exercise where one leaps as one executes a movement.
Chudan – Middle level. Sword (or hands) held at a lower level.
Chudan no kamae – Middle stance, sword at opponent’s throat
Chudo – Middle path, moderation

- D -

Daito-ryu – A traditional system of Aikijutsu. One of the foundation arts in O-Sensei’s early training.
Dan – Black belt rank. There are ten stations of Dan, as follows:
Shodan – 1st dan (beginning dan)
Nidan – 2nd dan
Sandan – 3rd dan
Yondan – 4th dan
Godan – 5th dan
Rokudan – 6th dan
Nanadan – 7th dan
Hachidan – 8th dan
Kudan – 9th dan
Judan – 10th dan
Do – In Japan; any art that is practiced to develop both technical and spiritual maturity is considered a do, a "way" to harmonize body and mind.
Dojo – The training hall. The place where the way to harmony with the fundamental life force (Ki) is practiced.
Doshu – Grandmaster.  Following the traditional Japanese custom, the position of Doshu has been made hereditary.
Dochu no sei – Calmness in action
Dotai – Torso

- E – F -

Enkai – Circular motion
Fudoshin – A self-controlled or immovable mind
Fudotai – A self-controlled or immovable body
Funakogi – A rowing motion
Funakogi undo – Rowing exercise, basic aiki taiso
Futari – Two persons

- G -

Ganmen – Front of face
Gedan gaeshi –  A circular jo strike to the lower portion of the body.
Gedan no kamae –  Low sword stance, sword to the ground
Gi – Training uniform – usually white canvas or muslin material. The padded type (judo) is best for beginners.
Gogo no shugyo –  Training after realization
Gokyo – Fifth controlling technique
Gyaku hamni – Mirror stance. When both partners have opposite feet advanced (toe-to-toe).
Gyosho – Aikido arts done with a full blend at the instant of contact, but not necessarily at full speed (i.e. cursive writing).

- H -

Hakama – A black (sometimes dark blue) split, pleated skirt/pants worn over the Gi by people who have earned the privilege
Hamni – The triangular stance.  This position is meant to be relaxed, comfortable, and natural, and should in no way look or feel artificial or stiff. From the correct hamni position, one can move readily in any direction.
Hamni handachi - Techniques where nage is sitting and uke is standing.
Hantai – Opposite
Happo – Eight Directions.
Happo giri – Eight direction cut
Happo jo gi – Eight direction jo movement
Happo undo – Eight direction aiki taiso
Hara – The central balance point in the human body, located slightly below the navel.  All coordinated movement originates from this one point.
Hasso – Posture where weapon is held vertically at the right shoulder
Hidari – Left
Hiji – Elbow
Hiji ostoshi – Elbow drop

- I – J -

Ikkyo – First controlling technique
Irimi – Moving to the inside, or moving into (compare with tenkan).  To enter without fear.
Irimi nage – Entering throw
Ishizuki – Spear tip
Jiyuwaza – Free style exercise
Jo – Wooden training staff.  The correct length is indicated by the distance between the palms of one’s outstretched hands, or from ones armpit to the floor.  Short staff
Jodan -Upper level.  Sword (or hands) held at an upper level.
Jodan no kamae – Upper stance-weapon overhead
Jogi – Jo kata
Joho kosa undo – High hand crossing aiki taiso
Jo ken awase – Jo and sword practice
Jo dori /Jo tori – Jo taking. Techniques for disarming a partner armed with a Jo.
Jo nage – Throws with a jo staff
Juji-nage – Crossed arms throw.  A throw executed when one’s partner’s arms are crossed at right angles.

- K -

Kaeshi – A reversing motion or attack
Kaisho – Aikido arts done from a stationary position (i.e. block writing, printing).
Kaiten – Wheeling, turning.
Kaiten-nage – The spin throw that makes the partner’s body revolve once before he is led down.  Wheel throw
Kakari geiko – To practice an art over and over again with many attackers
Kamei – Ready stance
Kami – Deity, Divine, Spirit, Holy Inspiration, Guardian Angel, Exalted Human Being.  The Japanese conception of kami has no direct parallel in Western religious terminology.
Kansha – Gratitude.  Aikido places great emphasis on the expression of gratitude, not just to our instructors and fellow practitioners, but to all members of society and all elements of creation.
Kata – Fixed form.  Predetermined sequences in set forms.  Used in the martial arts as a learning technique.
Kata oshi – Shoulder push
Kata otoshi – Throw by dropping the shoulder
Kata tori – Shoulder grab
Katana – The long sword worn by the Japanese samurai.
Katate tori – Wrist grab
Katsu – To win
Katsu haya bi – Faster than the speed of light
Katsujin ken – The sword of life
Kawasu – To dodge
Ken – Sword
Kengi – Sword kata
Kesa giri – Diagonal cut from shoulder to hip
Ki – Ki, the life-stuff of the Universe, has no English equivalent. An essential element of all aspects of oriental culture — philosophy, medicine, art, and physical training — the full significance of ki only becomes clear through firsthand experience.
Kiai – Literally "a meeting of the spirits," this is a penetrating cry or scream originating in the Hara. On the physical plane, kiai is manifest as a piercing shout emanating from the depths of one’s being; on the spiritual plane, it is manifest as a steady outpouring of vital energy.
Kiatsu – A way of directing Ki through touch, for healing.
Ki musubi – The uniting of one’s energy with that of the opponent’s
Ki no Kokyu-ho – Ki Breathing. A special set of meditation and development techniques aimed at calming the spirit and establishing true kokyu.
Ki no nagare – Free flowing ki.
Ki no Seiza-ho – Ki meditation as is taught by Tohei Sensei.
Ki no taiso – A three minute series of calisthenics designed to balance and tone the body.
Kirikaeshi – Reversing the attack without blocking
Kissaki – Tip of the sword
Koho – To the rear
Koho nage – Throw to the rear
Kohotento undo – Back rocking exercise / backward roll
Kokyu – Breath, rhythm of ki movement
Kokyu dosa – Ki development exercise
Kokyu ho – Method to blend with ki
Kokyu nage – Breath throw
Kokyu roku – Breath-power. The irresistible power that emanates from true kokyu.
Kosa – To cross or intersect
Koshi – Hip
Koshi nage – Hip throw
Kotai – To move backwards
Kotegaeshi – Reverse turn wrist lock
Kotehiroshi – Wrist throw.
Kubi-shime – Strangle hold.
Kyu- Ranks prior to Shodan. (5th kyu, 4th kyu, etc.)

- L – M -

Mai ai – The correct distance to be maintained between yourself and your partner; the immediate surroundings and one’s own position determine this spacing.
Mae – Front
Maeawari – To go around the wrists
Maegiri – Front kick
Makiotoshi – Spiral throw
Makoto – The highest truth / best qualities of a warrior
Masakatsu – True victory
Mawashi giri – Roundhouse kick
Migi – Right side
Misogi – (Purification) A set of Shinto purifying rituals.  A side training discipline to Aikido.  Various defilements obscure our essentially pure and god-like nature; through misogi, purification of body and mind, we can remove such impurities and restore our true image.  Although misogi rites usually involve water purification (e.g. in a waterfall), O-Sensei considered all Aikido techniques to be forms of misogi. In the Ki Society we practice a form of misogi adapted from the Ichikukai Temple.
Misogi barai – Training to purify the mind and body
Mizuochi – Nerve collection in upper abdomen
Mune – Chest
Munetsuki – Straight punch to abdomen

- N – O – P -

Nage – A throw, one who throws, or executes a technique.
Naginata – Japanese spear type weapon with a curved blade
Nen – Sense, feeling, desire
Nikyo – Second controlling technique , wrist lock
Nikyo undo – Aiki taiso to help stretch and strengthen the wrist
Omote – To the front
Omoto-kyo – The Teaching of the Great Origin.  The religion established early in the twentieth century by Deguchi Nao and Deguchi Onisaburo.  O’Sensei was a fervent believer in Omoto-kyo from the time of his late thirties.
Onegaish imasu – Please practice with me
Oonami – Technique using a big wave motion
Orenaite – Unbendable arm
O’Sensei - Great, or original teacher.  In Aikido, refers to Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of modern Aikido.
Otomo – Attendant to an Instructor.
Otonashi – Calm and serene, like the ever decreasing ripples on the surface of a lake.
Otoshi – To drop

- R -

Randori – Free style exercise with multiple attackers
Rei – Bow, the command to bow. The formal gesture of respect and gratitude used by Aikido practitioners.
Reiseishin – The spirit that is one with the spirit of the Universe.
Ryokata oshi – Pushing both shoulders
Ryokata tori – Grabbing both of the shoulders.
Ryote mochi – Two hands holding one wrist
Ryote tori – Holding both hands
Ryu – School or style

- S -

Samurai – One who follows the way.  A warrior, knight; one charged with the protection of society.  See budo, bushido.
Sankyo – Fourth wrist controlling technique, wrist lock
Sankyo undo – Wrist stretching exercise
Sasoikomi – To lure someone towards you
Satori – Enlightenment
Satsukin ken – Sword to kill
Sayu – Left and right motion
Seika-no-kaiten – One point below navel
Seika tanden – Vital area below the navel, hara
Seiza – Formal sitting position with feet folded back under buttocks, back straight.
Sempai – Senior student, assistant to Sensei
Sensei – Teacher.  One who gives instruction.  More importantly, one who leads the way; head of dojo; one who has gone before
Shihan – Exemplary teacher – A title used for the highest-ranking teachers.  Usually 6th dan and above – but not exactly a function of rank.  Representative or head of budo system.
Shihan dai – Assistant to head master
Shiho nage – Four corner throw
Shikko – Moving from a kneeling position.  Also called "samurai walk."
Shin – Mind, spirit, and heart.
Shinai – Bamboo practice sword
Shintai – The truth of the universe
Shizentai – Natural stance
Shodo – First move
Shodo-o-seisu – To control the first move
Shomen – The honored symbol of Ki and picture of the Master mounted in the forefront of the training area.  Front of the face, front of dojo.
Shomen-uchi – Overhead strike to the center of the head.
Shokushu – A brief, uplifting statement used prior to training.  Tohei Sensei has composed 21 of these sayings, which are read and repeated phrase by phrase before each class.  Used to center oneself and prepare oneself for training.
Shugyo – Internalizing techniques and philosophies
Sojutsu – Spear art
Sokuboku- Soku = breath; boku = wood.  The wooden clappers used to signify the changes in controlled breathing and meditation.
Sokushin no Gyo – Breath (Voice) Mind (Unification) training. The act of purifying mind and body. A side-training discipline in Aikido. (see misogi)
Sosho – Aikido arts done at full speed with a strong leading of Ki (i.e. "grass" writing).
Suwariwaza – Techniques requiring the nage and uke to perform from the sitting position.

- T -

Tachi – Japanese long sword
Tachi dori – Sword disarming techniques
Tai – Body, form, sometimes style.
Tai jutsu – Body techniques. Techniques performed without weapons.
Tai sabaki – Body movement. Body movement in Aikido should be free flowing, natural, and prudent.
Taigi – Body art, technique. A kata-like grouping of arts performed by two people (usually) to a specific rhythm and time.
Taiso – Exercise
Tanto/Tanken – Wooden training knife.  All wooden training weapons are treated as if they were actually sharp steel.  The idea here being that if one can successfully view the wooden weapon as steel, then when faced suddenly with steel, one can view the steel as wood.
Tanto tori – Knife taking techniques
Tegatana – Hand Sword. Since Aikido techniques are based on sword movements, the hand, with the fingers actively projecting Ki, should function as a sword.
Tegatana – Knife edge of hand
Tekubi – wrist
Tekubi kosa – Crossed wrists.
Tekubi kosa undo – Wrist crossing aikitaiso
Tekubi shindo undo – Wrist shaking exercise
Tenchin nage – Heaven and earth throw
Tenkan – Turning outside or away in a circular motion to dissipate an oncoming force.  Rotating about a vertical axis
Tento – To tumble
Tori – To grab

- U -

Uchi – To strike
Uchideshi – Literally "home-student"; an instructor that lives, trains, and teaches at the Headquarters or dojo.
Ude – Arm
Ude furi chayako undo – Alternating arm swing and body pivot exercise
Ude furi undo – Alternating arm swinging exercise
Uke – The attacker, one who falls
Ukemi – The art of falling without injury. It is said that one’s ability to throw is only as good as one’s ability to fall.
Ukemi – The art of falling and attacking
Undo – Exercise.
Ura – To the attacker’s rear
Ushiro – To the rear
Ushiro hiji tori – Rear elbow grab
Ushiro kata tori – Grabbing both shoulders from the rear
Ushiro kubishimi – Choke from the rear
Ushiro tori – Bear hug from the rear
Ushiro tekubi tori – Wrists held from behind

- V – W -

Wakasashi – Japanese short sword
Waza – Technique or system of techniques

- X – Y – Z -

Yari – Spear
Yokomen – Hooking strike to the head
Yokomen uchi – Strike to the side of the head.
Yonyko – Fourth controlling technique, wrist lock
Yudansha – Those who hold the rank of Shodan (1st degree Black belt) and above.
Zempo – Forward direction
Zempo kaiten – Foward roll (wheel).
Zempo nage – Forward direction throw
Zengo – Term indicating forward and backward direction.
Zengo undo – Two direction shomenuchi ikkyo exercise
Zanshin – Continuing mind, the mind that stops at, or on, nothing.  Forward focus.